lehakoe Glossary

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Gemology Glossary - Gemological Institute of Cambodia Glossary. Lehakoe Glossary. lehakoe Glossary

Abalone liperela

mala liperela baroque hlahisoang ke tse jeoang univalue mollusk e leng e na le khetla tsebeng-e bōpehileng joaloka bohlokoa bakeng sa mosebetsi oo mebala-bala 'me of-perela lera. Tsena a fumanoa ka America, New Zealand le metsi a Sejapane. Seoelo sephaphathi, ba atisa ho flattened le tsebe kapa tooth- bopehileng

monya

ho kenela (mohlala, mokelikeli ona a) kapa nka ho sona kapa e fumane matla a tsoang ho eneji tlale thabo (mohlala, leseli)

Absorption manyenyane

mohlala oa meleng e ka lefifing leo tsepameng, lihlopha, kapa dibakeng (e pharaletse absorption), bone ha leseli e leng e se e tšoaetsanoang ka kapa bonahatsa tsoang lehakoe o qhalakantsoeng ho kena metsoako e spectral le hlahloba sebelisa seletsa se e tse kang spectroscope e.

Adamantine

sheba benya

Adularescence

ea khethollang type genus bo bosoeu kapa bo Milky Sheen (Schiller) moonstone

Allochromatic

ha elements phetohong eo se teng feela e le hloeke sa reng letho a hlophisa boitsebiso ba mahakoe, lintho tse bonahalang tse ke allochromatic (allo = e meng; ban o thanh hoa = mmala)

Alluvium

lentsoe le akaretsang ka tloaelo sebediswa bakeng sa lutseng mobung oa lefika maloanlahla (alluvial lutseng mobung) oo ba 'nile ba isoa ke phallang metsi' me a rala ho theosa ka kemisong e sa khaotseng, nōkeng, moroallo thota kapa letšeng libethe.

Amorphous

sheba non-bonaletsang

Anisotropic

sheba doubly refractive

Archimedes molao-motheo

Archimedes molao-motheo o bolela hore ha 'mele o qoelisoa ka mokelikeli, joale sepheo holimo ho mokelikeli oa' mele o lekana le boima ba mokelikeli oa mahae. (Boikemisetso ba khoheli tse tobileng tseo ke bekha mokhoa oo hydrostatic e thehiloe molao-motheo ona)

majoe maiketsetso

kristale entsoeng ke motho se nang molekane ea tlhaho ea (mohlala, tse taemane simulants: strontium titanate le YAG)

kalafo maiketsetso

ho ntlafatswa ha ponahalo ea boleng ba ka ho futhumatsa, staining, barbotage, impregnation, ts'ebetso ea ho lelefatsa bophelo ba lijo kapa mong bang laser-cheka

bokane mahakoe

lehakoe leha e le efe e entsoeng ka likarolo tse peli kapa ho feta e leng ba 'nile ba tiisa kapa fused' moho ho theha lejoe se nang balekane

Asterism

asterism ke ponahatso e le hantle, ka tloaelo sena tse 'nè kapa tse tšeletseng rayed, ho tloha likhoele tse aligned kapa cavities fibrous a lejoe e leng e se e khaola en Khao cabochon nang inclusions ea sekametseng bapile le senyepa sefofane se

Aventurescence

e matla spangled ponahatso ea khanya e tsoang lipoleiti kapa flakes ea diminerale e 'ngoe akarelletsa lejoe (mohlala, joalokaha bonoa aventurine khalase, aventurine quartz, aventurine feldspar (sunstone))

A selekane oa setshwani

e mong oa metsoako ea ditshwani, e kgosomanyomela ea setshwani ke moleng oa inahanelang ho pholletsa bohareng ea kristale, e eo kristale ea ka rotated e le hore ba hlahise ponahalo e tšoanang 2, 3, 4 kapa 6 ka makhetlo a chenchana 'ngoe e felletseng (khr , le sefahleho tshwanang le occupies le boemong bo tšoanang, ho feta hang ka e chenchana tlatsa)

liperela Baroque

bolela sebelisoa ho liperela tsa tlhaho le rutehileng, blister kapa cyst,

tse sa tsoeng kamehla shahlile

Basalt

basalt, atileng ka ho fetisisa extrusive igneous lefikeng, ke lefifi, bo botle-grained lefika hantle entsoeng ka feldspar le lefifi 'me pyroxene (ka kapa ntle le olivine). Ho na le tse 'maloa mefuta e sa tsoaneng tse di classified itšetlehileng ka diphapano botenya, sebopeho le dikahare diminerale

majoe Biaxial

a ea orthorhombic, monoclinic le triclinic litsamaiso ho na le tse tharo tse lilepe kristale ea bolelele bo fapaneng. Double refraction tla etsahala directions ka ho fetisisa, empa ho tla be ba babeli optic lilepe (ditataiso tsa refraction ba masoha) hore li fapana ka tlwaetso ya mong le e mong ka thoko mefuta e lehakoe. liminerale tsa ditsamaiso tsa tsena li tsejoa e le biaxial. (In tsamaiso orthorhombic ea lilepe optic tšoanang le tšekamelo ea ho ea 'e c' (molao-motheo tsepameng kgosomanyomela), ha a ntse a karolong e ka monoclinic le triclinic ha ho na kamano e tobileng ba nang le lilepe tsa kristale.)

Birefringence

(Eo hape a bitsoa imene habeli refraction / DR) birefringence ke tjhelete ya imene habeli refraction ya anisotropic lehakoe hlalosoa e le phapang pakeng tsa indices refractive nakong karohano palo e kahodimodimo

Biwa liperela

non-nucleated rutehileng liperela (tseo hangata oval kapa baroque shahlile Japane) farmed ho pota-pota mabōpong a Letša la Biwa Japane. liperela li hōlileng ka ho se seholo mussels metsi a hloekileng ka ho kenyeletsa likaroloana tse nyenyane tsa seaparo sa ka holimo a kenya 'meleng oa mussel ea

sekoli

lentsoe le akaretsang bakeng sa phoso e leng ama holim 'a lehakoe e. sekoli A hangata a bakoang ke liketso tsa batho, ebang ke ha a ntse a lehakoe e ntse khaola kapa ha e ntse e tsofetseng a mabenyane. Mengoapo, likoting, 'me abrasions ke mefuta atileng ka ho fetisisa ea sekoli

liperela Blister

liperela tse koahetsoeng ka lehlakoreng le leng feela ke mokato nacreous e leng hōla lilemo tse fetang e halefisang sa mathomo a kopana le khetla mollusk. Ha liperela tse joalo li ntšitsoeng, sebaka seo se leng se neng a kopana le khetla e koaheloang ke letho la nacre. Ka lebaka leo lehlakoreng lena se nang letho hangata smoothed tima 'me patiloe ke boemo

tsotoang

tsotoang ke bongata kakaretso ea mo lekgotleng bonahatsa leseli le e khutlela leihlo ho tloha lehakoe eo. Ho seng jwalo e ka hlalosoa e le khanya (bophelo) ea lehakoe e le laolwang ke tjhelete ya leseli bonahatsa khutlisetsa ho leihlo ho tloha karolong e ka morao ea litšobotsi tse sa lejoe ea

Brittleness

brittleness e hlalosoa e le bofokoli a lehakoe e e leng ho sa tsotellehe thatafala eona, etsa hore ho bonolo ho fracture, tsenyo (mohlala, mocheso tšoaroa zircon)

leihlong Cat oa

sheba chatoyancy

Khubu ea lihloliloeng setshwani

e mong oa metsoako ea ditshwani, setsi sa setshwani ke le teng ha mong le e mong sefahleho sa kristale phethahetse fapane ka ho feletseng bo fapaneng le sefahleho tšoanang lehlakoreng le leng la kristale ea (khr, e mong le sefahleho na sefahleho 'ngoe eo ke e tšoanang, bo fapaneng le bapileng)

Chatoyancy

ke sesupo le phello tsoang sekametseng inclusions bapileng fibrous kapa (leihlong katse tsona) cavities. The streak se nang balekane ba leseli hlaha dikhutlo tokelo ea ho tataiso ea inclusions le e molemo ka ho fetisisa bone tlas'a e le 'ngoe holim'a leseli mohloling o ka majoe hore ba' nile ba khaola en Khao cabochon

Chelsea mmala rater

esalelo e entsoeng ka motsoako oa filter,, hahoa e joalo e lumella hore e 'meli feela dikarolo tsa moqotetsane tsa manyenyane hore e be bopaki bo bonahalang ka eona: bohloko bo tebileng khubelu (haufi 690nm) le tse tala mosehla (e haufi le 570nm). E na le thuso a bontšang ho ba teng ha google chrome kapa cobalt a mahakoe a itseng, kaha ho hlahlobeng (google chrome) hlahisa dae tse betliloeng majoeng 'me bakeng sa thepa ea arola ba bang lehakoe tsoang imitations ba atisang. Khopotso: Sebelisa e le pontšo e lemosang e loketseng feela. Bopaki bo itšetlehile liteko tse ling

Chromophore

(Colouring moemeli). Karolo ea molek'hule ea hore o ikarabella ho mmala e motsoako oa. E se teng e le boleng bo constituent ea bohlokoahali nakong ea lik'hemik'hale tse betliloeng majoeng idiochromatic kapa hoo e leng se hloeke accidentai a majoe allochromatic

tlhakisetso

ho sebelisitsoe lentsoe le sebelisoa ho hlalosa le tokoloho e lekanyelitsoeng tsoang sekoli leha e le sefe internai kapa irregularity (inclusions) a lehakoe e. tlhaloso ea ka boela atoloswa ho kenyeletsa bokaholimo likoli (likoli) ha ho hlahloba ka mokhoa o hlakileng kereiti ya lejoe

Color lihlopha

lihlopha le kakanyo feela e ka bapisoang le 'mala o bone holim'a lithollo kapa a hlalosa sebopeho internai holimo tsa majoe (bontsha gore go mekhahlelo sebeletsa kholo bakoang ke ho se tšoane ka fumaneha lik'hemik'hale, sephalli, mocheso, khatello le lintho tse ling)

Color a mahakoe

mokhoa o bonahalang temoho ea constituents e be e leng leseli o mosoeu ka aroloa (kgubedu, o kang oa lamunu, o mosehla, o motala, o moputsoa, ​​bopherese) hammoho le boikutlo oa lintho tse pherese o sa fumanoa a manyenyane a letsatsi. Color e hlalositsoeng ke mala ona, ho tlala le modumo. 'Mala oa' mele oa lehakoe e le tsoa ea leseli leo ka sebele e bonoa hammoho le ho ba lebaka la absorption ea wavelengths tse itseng tsa leseli bonahalang. Color ka boela bakoang ke qhalakana sa kena-kenane ba hlahise khanya le khanyang

Color bopa dikgaolo

mmala bopa dikgaolo develops nakong kholo ea kristale ea ka lebaka la ho concentrations dumellaneng ea manya. The diphapano ka 'mala (lihlopha kapa ka libaka) ba ka tloaelo bone ho latela lifahlehong teng kristale

taka likarolo

Hloaee absorption ea leseli ka lebaka la ho ba teng ha lirafshoa phetoho ea (google chrome, cobalt, koporo, vanadium, a mankanese, tšepe, nikele, thaethaniamo) tse betliloeng majoeng idiochromatic le allochromatic

diseke

diseke na le moelelo o e tšoanang le e meholohali le e sebelisoa haholo-holo ha lithollo tsa bontša ho se pontso ea likaroloana mehaho (mohlala, fme-grained jadeite a jade)

le likarolo tse ngata lehakoe

sheba bokane lehakoe

Conch liperela

pinki liperela: liperela fumana ho tswa ho conch a maholo, e mollusk univalve fumanoa lebōpong la Florida, lekhalo la California le Mexico. liperela tsena ka tloaelo pinki (pinki o kang oa lamunu kapa o mosoeu) mebala le ba tšoauoa ka ho hloka barbotage nacreous

Conchoidal

sheba fracture

Nketele tamorphic

ea recrystallization ya diteng tsa diminerale ea mafika pele ho ea bileng teng ho sona kapa e haufi ea etelang makala ikopanye ka lebaka la ho ba teng ha magmas

Contact lefahla

mofuta o mong oa kristale twinning e leng lipuo tseo batho ba li ikopanye hammoho sefofane se tloaelehileng le sebelisoang malapeng (sefofane lefahla). The likarolo tse peli tsa kristale tse joalo li kahoo amanang hore haeba karolo e 'ngoe e rotated pholletsa 180 ° (a halofo lehlakoreng le leng) e mabapi le kgosomanyomela e (le lefahla le kgosomanyomela) ka nako eo ea dihalofo tse pedi tsa tla etsa sebopeho sa ea kristale ka bomong. The ikopanye lefahla teng mefuta e 'meli: ikopanye se nang balekane ba mafahla-moo 2 dihalofo ea kristale e ke e le hore se mo khutlisetsang bocheng e le hore haeba halofo e' ngoe e rotated 180 ° mabapi sefofane ea ikopanya, sebopeho sa kristale tloaelehile e fumanweng; pheta, polysynthetic kapa lammelar mafahla-e leng mofuta o mong oa kristale twinning comprising letoto la mafahla ikopanye hangata a etsa lipoleiti otile haholo. Tsena li lokisetsa a tlwaetso bo fapaneng ho baahelani ba bona hang-hang (mohlala, joalokaha e fumanoa ka corundum le feldspar). Sheba mafahla boetse interpenetrant

mahlonoko angle

ea angle incidence moo ho lehlaseli la leseli e tsamaeang ho tloha ke sa optically denser ho seaplane a fumanehe ka seoelo e refracted nakong 90 ° ho ea ho tloaelehile (khr, e skims holim 'a mecha ea litaba e' meli a ikopanye). Ela hloko: leha e le efe eketsa tlhahiso ea phaella ho se angle ena ea incidence tla etsa hore ea ray, refracted ho furalla ho kena ka har'a seaplane sa mathomo moo e ne e tla ikamahanya le melao ea ponahatso (khr, e ne e tla ka ho feletseng lekgotleng bonahatsa.)

Cryptocrystalline

(Crypto = patiloe). Ho sebelisitsoe lentsoe le sebelisoa ho hlalosa boitsebiso bo bongata entsoeng ka palo e maholohali a kristale se senyenyane hangata-potlana nyenyane eaba ba etsa e boima har'a maemo ao. -Potlana nyenyane kristale aggregate ka hlaha amorphous ho ka mahlo

Crystal

e kristale ke lik'hemik'hale junifomo o tiileng e nang le laela internai sebopeho sa athomo le mokhoa oa eona a hlahang kantle potapotoeng ke symmetrically lokisetsa sefofane se lifahlehong (bataletseng)

foromo kristale

e leng sebopeho kristale na le saleh lifahlehong bao tse tsela e tšoanang tse amanang le ho lilepe crystallographic (mohlala, phiramite, porisime, pinacoid, Dome)

mokhoeng kristale

dibopeho kristale (foromo, le dipharologantsho tsa bokaholimo) e leng lipuo tseo ka tlwaelo liminerale etsahala li bitsoa senya mekhoa e metle ea bona kristale

inclusions kristale

kristale inclusions a identifiable ka mabitso a tsona ho likhutlong batlang e angular le metshetshe batlang e otlolohile. metshetshe makukuno le mefuta e lekaneng hanyenyane boetse a kopana le ka lebaka la ho reabsorption ea inclusions eo. (Kristale inclusions ka tlwaelo bontša fihlang a imoloha hakaakang khahlanong phofu ea semelo sa ha nkoa tlas'a darkfield khanya. Ba ka hlahloba ka ho sebedisa polars tšela.)

Crystal setshwani

kristale setshwani bua ka paterone e leka-lekaneng ea mohaho oo athomo. Ke hore li ikatise tobileng (se bale ponahalo) lifahleho tsa tshwanang le kristale (metshetshe likhutlong) hore bontsha laela hare tokisetso ea boleng ba ya.

bonaletsang

bonaletsang disebediswa tsa ka tlhaloso e diminerale o tiileng bao ions, liathomo kapa limolek'hule tse lokisetsa ka tsela e hlophisehile. Ka go ikatisetsa, lentsoe le atisa ho sebelisoa ha ho hlalosoa dintho nang kaheho kamehla le thepa ea directional empa se hakaalo hore e tse hlahang kantle thutatekanyo sebopeho sefe

lilepe Crystallographic

tsena ke meleng e ka ba inahanelang ho lekanya bolelele sa lekanyetsoang mathang ho pholletsa le

sebaka se setle kristale tse itseng directions tobileng mabapi le ea setshwani ea kristale eo. Ba intersect e bohareng ba kristale a ho ntlha bitsoa ka tšimoloho. (Ba nang le mela e ya referense ho tloha e ka lekanya sebaka se selelele lekanyelitsoeng 'me tšekamelo ea lifahleho tsa tse fapa-fapaneng.)

liperela rutehileng

liperela rutehileng ba formations pearly feletseng kapa mokhoa o sa fellang bakoang

ke ho kenella ha ea mokhatlo o fanang ka botho ho kena ka hare tsa mefuta itseng ea likhofu e behang. Hona ho sebetsa ho liperela rutehileng hore na ka kapa ntle le khubu e

Cyst liperela

e perela o thehoa ka hare ho 'mele oa perela mollusk le e spheroid shahlile

Dendritic kenyelletsoa ha lintlha

sefate seo-joaloka kapa boriba-joaloka mobile crack tlatsang (moo inclusions tse bonahalang tse fapaneng ka 'na Fîl khefu -. tloaelo oxide e tsepe)

Divitrify

ho amoha oa benya 'me le kang khalase transluceny. (Mabapi le sehlahiswa khalase bitsoa Meta a jade - ke ke tsoelo-pele ea crystallization incipient)

Dichroscope

ea dichroscope e kofuto e leng lumella liphello pleochroic oa liminerale lehakoe le hlokomeloe, mebala e 'meli kapa shades ea mmala ka nako

Diffraction

ea diffraction la leseli ke e khethehileng foromo ya tshitiso khanya a e leng leseli o mosoeu e robehileng fihlang (petsoha) ho kena ka mebala e ea eona ea motsoako joaloka leseli le fetisa ka ho lesoba monyenyane kapa ha maqhubu a leseli fetisa bohale e pakeng tsa tsela e fapaneng refracting dintho (mohlala, tse bapala mebala bonoa Opal ba bohlokoa boo)

hasana

hasana e karohano (tlōla fihlang) ya leseli o mosoeu ho kena mebala e spectral ke refraction (the kobeha la leseli) joalokaha leseli feta bokaholimo ba babeli sekametse. A mahakoe e atisa ho bitsoa 'mollo'

Double refractive

anisotropic - liminerale bontša directional thepa ea Optical (mohlala, majoe a sa tetragonal, hexagonal trigonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic le triclinic litsamaiso)

motlakase manyenyane

ho sebelisitsoe lentsoe le sebelisoang bakeng sa fapaneng eohle ea wavelengths matla a phatsimang tsoang maqhubu telele ka ho fetisisa-le-moea ho pholletsa le khutsoanyane fetisisa wavelengths marang

Metsoako ea setshwani

metsoako ea setshwani ke ea ka mokhoa oa classifi-ealogy bakeng sa litsamaiso tse supileng kristale. Li disebediswa ho re nolofalletsa ho arola le ho hlalosa mefuta e sa tšoaneng ea sebopeho se tshwanang kristale. Li akarelletsa sefofane se ea ditshwani, e kgosomanyomela ea setshwani le setsi sa setshwani (sheba litlhaloso tlas'a Listings ka bomong)

Eluvium

eluvial lutseng mobung bopilwe maloanlahla lefika (lehlohlojane) oo o 'nile a bo sentse (weathered tsoa) tsoang phofu ea lefika le ntse a situ (a place) ntle le hlahetsoeng ke lipalangoang a linōka

Emit

ho fana ka kapa tima ho tsoa (mohlala, leseli)

Enantiomorphism

kaheho ea limolek'hule tsa quartz e fanang ka hlahisa polelo e tloaelehileng ka ho le letsehali le se nepahetseng ho letsohong sebeletsa kholo spiral ea quartz, 'me ho karohanyo ea oona chitja. (Hlokomela: Ho bewa ga lifahlehong se senyenyane auxillary tse khafetsa bonahalang tse hlahang kantle foromo thusa khetholla letshehadi kapa le letona handedness ea kristale ea)

ntlafatswa

sheba kalafo maiketsetso

inclusions Epigenetic

ngolang inclusions mehleng ena. Bao e leng hlahile ka mor'a ho thehoa ha phofu ea kristale. Tsena li akarelletsa mefuta e sa tšoaneng ea mapetsong le inclusions diminerale thehoa ke exsolution (mohlala, rutile silika a corundum); se ke a letho oli / opticon, joalo-joalo, mesaletsa a fracture tlala mahakoe.

Exsolution inclusions

sheba exsolved

Exsolved

ea unmixing oa liminerale. Ba bang ba lipara oa liminerale theha litharollo tse tiileng nakong thempereichara e phahameng 'me ba sa tsitsang nakong thempereichara e tlaase. Ha tsena pholile butle diminerale 'ngoe e ka o qobelloang ho tsoa ha kaheho neng a amohetse moeti pholisa le litumellano, ka ho toba pepeta manya ho kena bobuelli lolea moo ba crystallize (mohlala, rutile nale (silika) a corundum)

Fela

fela ke ho ba sieo ha leseli khutlela leihlo. Sena se etsa hore lejoe ho hlaha lefifi 'me a haelloa ke billiance

mabitso tšobotsi

mahakoe faceted na moqhaka (karolo e itseng ya top ka holimo ho bophahamo senyepa sa), tafole (karolong e bohareng tšobotsi ea moqhaka), senyepa (the karolo e lejoe le leholo ka ho fetisisa pherimitha kapa moeli hlahang kantle), e pavilion (karolong e tlaase-tlaase ka tlaase ho bophahamo ba senyepa sa ). litšobotsi tse ling tsohle ka 'na ea fapana ka boholo ba tsona, maqhubu a kapa esita boteng ho itšetlehile ka ho itšeha setaele sebelisoa. Ka mohlala, ka tekanyetso talima mohato-khaola (emeralde sehiloeng) majoe culet (se senyenyane tšobotsi botlaaseng ba pavilion ea) e nkeloa sebaka ke mola keel (mola o molelele extending hammoho e le setsi sa botlaaseng ba pavilion ea)

bokaholimo ba matsoele bohata

sheba arohana

masiba kenyelletsoa ha lintlha

sefofane se ea cavities motsotso tseo ka tloaelo li hlaha e le letšoele la dikarolo tse motle molamu-joaloka ea intercommunicating dikanale (hangata mokelikeli tlala).

Fibrous

Lebitso fuoa boitsebiso bo bongata moo ho nang le lithollo tse constituent nale e bōpehileng joaloka (mohlala, asbestos, nephrite a jade)

inclusions menoana

tsena ka boela ka tsejoang e le masiba pholiso le bopilwe interconnecting marangrang dikanale mokelikeli tletseng 'me marotholi tšoanang e menoana. Hangata lebaka la litharollo diminerale butle-butle filtara e kena ka mobile crack pele ho ea bileng teng naheng e ka kenang kristale se a ntse a thehoa, 'me ho phekola ba lepetsong. Boemo bo ile ba e meng moo ditshebetso tse joalo ho ka etsahala ke nakong ya kalafo futhumatsa ntlo mocheso. Menwana tloaelehileng lirubi tšoaroa

fihlela qetellong

fihlela qetellong bua ka boleng bo faceting oa lehakoe le e ahloloa ke tekanyo e oa khanye, kamehla, 'me flatness ea e mong le tšobotsi

khanyang

khanyang ke ntshiwa ba leseli bopaki bo bonahalang ke mahakoe a 'nileng a pepesa ho radiations bopaki bo bonahalang kapa e sa bonahaleng ea wavelength e khutsoanyane (eneji e phahameng)

Fracture

fracture ke ladica i kamehla kapa a thuhang 'lejoe

lehakoe

e lejoe la bohlokoa oa mofuta ofe kapa ofe, khaola le e bentšitsoeng bakeng mokhabiso (perela e le mokhelo hlokomelehang ho tse hlokahalang hore motho e qetellang). A lehakoe ke tlhaloso e 'ngoe eo a nang le tsona botle, tšoarella' me fumanoa seoelo

Glass

khalase eo poleloana e sebelisoa ho dintho tse bōptjoa ke qhibiliha 'me tsidifatso e potlakileng ea dintho diminerale, ho fellang ka ho thehoa ha boitsebiso bo bongata amorphous. Glass ka ba maiketsetso (manmade, ka linako tse ling ho thoeng ke ho peista) kapa ho feta ka seoelo, mohlala oa tlhaho, obsidian (foqoha khalase), tektites (nahana hore ke meteoric fafatse products)

morema

morema ke leseli mak'halate mahoashe-grained intrusive igneous lefika entsoe haholo ka ho quartz, feldspar le Mica

keketseho e bileng teng lebanta

lihlopha bobebe le leso kudu meleng e otlolohile nakong dikhutlo hore latela mohlala oa mehaho diminerale ea

Habit

sebopeho khethollang e leng lipuo tseo diminerale ka ho fetisisa ka tloaelo se hlahile. Habit eseng feela akarelletsa foromo hlahang kantle ho tloaelehile hore amohetsweng diminerale empa ho boetse ho tlwaelegileng tse di bokaholimo liphello haesita

Hackly

sheba fracture

Halo kenyelletsoa ha lintlha

kristale kenyelletsoa ha lintlha pota-potiloe ke ho imeloa kelellong mobile crack (s). Tsena ka boela shebahala joaloka serurubele le mapheo a mabeli a tsoang tsa kristale akarelletsa (e leng hangata ho zircon)

thatafala

thatafala ke matla diminerale a e-na ho hanela scratching (abrasion). Bona le Moh oa tekanyo e

Healing mapetsong

folisa mapetsong (mapetsong kapa cleavages) moo e mokelikeli kena qhetsolang le kristale hōla morao 'moho. Hangata likarolo tse ling tsa mokelikeli ba qabeletsoe ka har'a cavities le dikanale bakang feathery kapa menoana-joaloka dipaterone (ka linako tse ling tsepe-stained)

Hue

mala ona o bua ka lebitso la mmala ka boeona: e hloekileng spectral sensations mofubelu, o kang oa lamunu, o mosehla, o motala, o moputsoa, ​​bopherese le mekete e fapaneng ea tsena. Hue boetse o bua ka boikutlo oa lintho tse pherese (mahareng bofubedu le bopherese), e ha e fumanoa manyenyane a letsatsi

Hydrothermal

mafika behiloeng, hangata a methati ea ho qetela ea tiisetso igneous tsoang seretse se chesang ruileng metsi le lintho tse ling ho hloka botsitso. The methapong hydrothermal ea diminerale barui litharollo filthara pholletsa likheo le mapetsong a mafika sedimentary le foromo kristale lined cavities a lefika

Idiochromatic

ha elements phetohong eo ke constituent bohlokoa ho hlophisa boitsebiso ba lehakoe, lintho tse bonahalang tse lehakoe ke idiochromatic (idio = boithati, ban o thanh hoa = mmala)

qoelisoa seleng

seleng e nyenyane khalase bakeng sa nang le sephalli loketseng. Molao-motheo sebelisa qoelisoa ka seleng ke hore refractive index of mokelikeli ke ho lejoe, ho ba bonolo e tla ba ho bona ho kena lejoe. Hoo e ka bang leha e le efe mokelikeli colorless, esita metsi, e tla rema bokaholimo ponahatso 'me u etse ho sheba inclusions bonolo haholo

a situ

disebediswa tsa kopana le boemong seo ho sona ho qalong e ne e thehoa kapa beha e re ho ka fumanoa situ (ka ho toba e ka place)

kenyelletsoa ha lintlha

lentsoe le akaretsang bakeng sa sekoli leha e le sefe kapa irregularity ka hare ho lehakoe e. Inclusions ka aroloa mefuta e meraro tse fapaneng: tiileng oa-bao ka bobeli bonaletsang (mohlala, zircon a safire) kapa bao e seng bonaletsang (mohlala, khalase tlhaho peridot) lia khoneha. Cavities-tsena ka 'na theha nakong ea neng a amohetse moeti mahakoe sebeletsa kholo (inclusions sa mathomo), kapa hamorao (inclusions sekondari). Ebang ke mofuta wa ka tlala motsoako leha e le efe ea mokelikeli, khase le kapa tiileng. Ba nang le mekhahlelo e 'meli kapa ho feta li bitsoa multiphase. Keketseho e bileng teng liketsahalo mebala e bopa dikgaolo le twinning ke mehlala bobeli ba liketsahalo sebeletsa kholo

go la la

sebelisa'ng ho go la la ka tlaase mona khubelu 'me sena se letoto la mahlaseli a kotsi ho qala ka wavelengths hore na e telele ho feta 700nm la leseli khubelu. mahlaseli a go la la tloaelo e tsejoang e le futhumatsa ntlo hobane e hlahisa boikutlo mofuthu ha e otlang tlolela ea rona

tshitsiso

moo mahlaseli a ba babeli ba tsamaeang tseleng e tšoanang, empa ho tsoa motheo (mohato oa), baa kena-kenana le e 'ngoe e' ngoe ho etsa hore ebang tjhelete yohle pheliso ea leseli kapa ea pele ho busa ba bang mebala e 'ngoe kapa ho feta

lipalo sa kena-kenane

tsena ke liphello Optical bone ha imene habeli liminerale refractive ba shejoa ka lifahlehong bapileng a convergent lehlaseli la khanya le polarized. Ba kgona fumane boitsebiso bo nang le thuso mabapi le semelo sa Optical ea lejoe

mafahla Interpenetrant

mofuta o mong oa kristale twinning e leng lipuo tseo batho ba babeli ba joalo hōlileng hammoho e le hore ho bonahala eka ba phunyelletsa mong ho e mong (tseo hangata hlahisa sefapano kapa naleli majoe)

Iridescence

iridescence kapa ho bapala 'mala o hlalosa' mala kapa letoto la mebala e hlahisoang ke kgohlano kapa diffraction ha leseli e bonahatsoa mohlomong tse tsoang lifilimi tšesaane kapa ho tswa ho sebopeho sa e ikhethang ea Opal ba bohlokoa boo

Isomorphous phetolo

ea tloswa sa e 'ngoe ea lik'hemik'hale elements e mong oa valency tšoanang lik'hemik'hale. Sena se fella ka diphapano ka bophara a makgetha a ho kula 'meleng oa litho tsa letoto la lihlooho tse. Valency: ba boemong bo tsoanang k'hemik'hale lintho tsa tlhaho 'me radius ionic

Isotropic

sheba singly refractive

Keshi rutehileng liperela

ka tlhaho etsahalang non-nucleated metsi a hloekileng liperela e leng theha a mollusk e ha e khutlela metsi ka mor'a ho tlosa ya mbuma ea bao e seng nucleated liperela rutehileng. Tsena hase lokela ho ferekanngoa le phelang metsing peo pearis tse ka tlwaelo nyenyane haholo. The metsi a hloekileng `keshi 'ba feela ho thoeng hobane ba tšoanang le ba ha ba eketsehile ho tloha ho e khubu maiketsetso. Ka linako tse ling ho thoeng ke `seedless 'liperela ho etsa phapang le bao e seng nucleated. Bona le Biwa liperela

Keshi liperela (phelang metsing)

ea Japanese pitso ea peo liperela `keshi '(poppie). Mokhatlo mona ke e kholo pakeng tsa saese nyenyane ea lipeo Poppy le nyenyane haholo liperela ka tlhaho ha thehoa

Konoscope

e polariscope loketseng e nang le lense ka matla convergent e thusang bebofatsa mosebetsi wa ho boha ho ea lipalo sa kena-kenane

Lamellae inclusions

bakoang ke twinning polysynthetic. Ka hlaha joalokaha foufatsa kapa sebeletsang pepeneneng tlhapi-line. Ba ka 'na e boetse e hlaha ho kopana ka mahlakoreng (mohlala, a corundum moo directions kopana)

mobu Lateritic

lumellanoang ka eona tsone (entsoe ka likhechana lefika le limela) e tswang ho khetheha basait bole (a motle grained lefifing leo seretse se chesang lefika ruileng tšepe le magnesium, e leng bulehile haholo ho liphello tsa lik'hemik'hale bosa a e tlelaemete e chesang e mongobo)

Luminescence

lentsoe le akaretsang bakeng sa ho fana ka tima bo bonahalang `khanya e batang 'ka boleng ba holim fumana keketso matla a foromo e le' ngoe kapa motho e mong. The liketsahalo melao-motheo ea lilemo li hlano luminescent ke: chemi-luminescence (lebaka la phetoho ea lik'hemik'hale), tribo-luminescence (hlahisoang ke khohlano), thermo-luminescence (hlahisoang ke futhumatsa ntlo), photo¬luminescence (hlahisoang ke radiations bopaki bo bonahalang kapa tse sa bonahaleng oa matla e phahameng / e khutsoanyane wavelength) le cathodoluminescence (tlisoang ke ho nyakallo e nang le elektrone toloki a phaposing lephaka)

benya

benya ke lenane le boleng ba a khanya eo e bonahatsoa tsoang holim 'a lejoe le. Dipehelo latelang li sebelisetsoa ho hlalosa lehakoe lusters: metallic: phahameng benya bontšoa ke opaque liminerale metallic. adamantine: phahameng bokaholimo reflectivity. vitreous: khalase joaloka benya tse tloaelehileng ya bongata ba mahakoe. boroku: tse tloaelehileng benya ea halogenated (bonojoana nang kwa tlase RI). waxy: hoo e ka bang matte bokaholimo (ka linako tse ling bitsoa greasy). greasy: hanyenyane mafura batla bakiloeng ke ho qhalana ha leseli ke bokaholimo microscopically halefile. pearly: benya ha perela / me oa ka-of-perela. silky: fibrous benya bo hlollang ba silika

Mabe (rutehileng) liperela

le likarolo tse ngata rutehileng blister liperela tseo re ka ithutang khubu sa mathomo e se e tlosoa 'me nkeloa sebaka ke sefaha e nyenyane tiisa,' me le sekotoana Dome e bōpehileng joaloka di mother- of-perela glued ho botlaaseng ba yona ba ho koahela sebakeng sa haelloe ke nacre

seretse se chesang

entsoeng ka ho qhibilihisoa (mokelikeli) lefika

ruteha habonolo

sebelisa'ng ho bonolo ho ea nang le bokhoni ba ho atoloswa kapa bōpehileng joaloka ke shapa nang hamore kapa ke khatello ea rollers

Entsoeng ke motho

e entsoeng ke motho sehlahiswa sa ka tlhaloso e le 'ngoe e' nileng ea synthesized a laboratori e. (Ho synthesize ke ho beha hammoho kapa kopana likarolo ho ea kena rarahaneng oohle oa). Me phello ea hona bofelo bo ka 'na ba lehakoe maiketsetso (khr, e mong o nang le mphato tsa tlhaho) kapa e lehakoe la maiketsetso (khr, e mong hore ha e na mphato tsa tlhaho)

setonanahali

ho sebelisitsoe lentsoe le sebelisoa ho hlalosa e leng hlophisa boitsebiso ba nang le tsona tseo e leng e tiileng ea internai sebopeho sa kristale, empa ha bontša ntle thutatekanyo sebopeho se setle. Sena se ka ho botjwa diyuniti 'ngoe (mohlala, a ema quartz) kapa ho feta kristale (mohlala, jadeite)

Mettalic

sheba benya

Metamict

poleloana e reng sebediswa bakeng sa boitsebiso bo bongata o ile a utloa bohloko ka a etsa khefu-theoha e bonaletsang boemong tjhajilwe amorphous; a atile liminerale tse nang le mahlaseli a kotsi thepa ea (mohlala, le tlaase mofuta wa zircon)

mafika Metamorphic

metamorphic (ho toba, a fetola ka sebopeho) mafika li thehoa ho tloha mafika pele ho ea bileng teng haholo-holo ke ketso eo ba hatelloa, mocheso le / kapa ho buelloa ha dintho tse ntjha tsa lik'hemik'hale

Meteriki carat (CT)

e 'ngoe meteriki carat = bohlano e' ngoe ea grama (0.20gr) kapa 200 milligrams (mg,). A carat meteriki ke yuniti ya boima ba 'mele bakeng sa mahakoe saleh le liperela rutehileng. boima ba 'mele e bontša hore libakeng tse peli mesa le ditesimale ba atisa ho loosely bitsoa' lintlha tse ', ke hore,, 1 meteriki carat = lintlha tse 100

ya microscope

kofuto Optical e entsoeng ka motsoako oa lilense e leng hlahisa setšoantšo tlotlisoa ea ntho e itseng. Tseo tse ling tsa sebelisa mokhoa oa ho bohlokoa le ho feta oa magnification: kenyeletso ithuta (tsa tlhaho vs entsoeng ke motho; screen reader mode wa sebopeho / sebeletsa kholo kristale); bokaholimo ba ngotse hlahlobo (boleng ba khaoloe (setshwani), ho bentsa (dipehelo tsa litšobotsi tse, firemarks); phumano ea majoe le likarolo tse ngata; boitsebahatso ea phekolo maiketsetso; utloa ka hlaseloa habonolo ke sa senyeha haholo (mohlala, boteng ba fracture le / kapa bokaholimo ba matsoele); lemoha doubling (SR vs. .DR, le ka bontša palo ya birefringence)

diminerale

diminerale e ke ka tlhaho etsahalang boleng ba inorganic ho ba le sebopeho k'hemik'hale le thepa ea lintho tsa nama kapa tse sa khaotseng ka hare ho meeli moqotetsane. sebopeho sa eona ke ka tlwaelo bonaletsang

leseli Monochromatic

monochromatic leseli ke leseli la wavelength 'ngoe feela. The maemo a mosehla leseli monochromatic sebediswa bakeng sa litekanyo Refractometer le tsoa lebone sodium mouoane. Sena ha e le hantle e na le mela e mmedi haufi-ufi haholo spaced ntshiwa, bao latela boleng ba bolele e 589.3nm

inclusions Multiphase

inclusions tse ka fupere mokelikeli le khase le / kapa kristale

Nacre

e secretion hlahisoang ke seaparo sa ka holimo oa ketso e itseng mefuta itseng ea likhofu e leng e bopa ya dikarolo iridescent ea ba batlang liperela le 'mè-of-perela' ngoe holim'a metsi ka har'a khetla mollusk. Nacre na le bonaletsang carbonate ea kalaka le manyolo e disebediswa tsa bitsoa conchiolin

Namometers (NM)

yuniti ya tekanyo wavelengths e khutsoanyane ea manyenyane motlakase (tlale thabo eneji). 1 nanometer = 1 millioneth karolo ea mokhatlo oa millimeter (1 / 1,000,000 NM) mohlala, bopaki bo bonahalang leseli oela pakeng tsa 700nm (kgubedu) le 400nm (bopherese)

letsoalloa sehiloeng

ho sebelisitsoe lentsoe le sebelisoang bakeng sa setaele ea sehiloeng khethiloeng bakeng sa palo e kahodimodimo boima ba 'mele tshegetsa le go tlotla. Majoe ana e tebileng sehiloeng nang pavilions kholo hangata hloka

recutting ba fihle dilekanyetso hamolemo ho

nyahamisang a kristale

cavities linaheng tse kopaneng tsa mahakoe ho ba le bonaletsang sebopeho. cavities tsena li ile tsa bōptjoa ha libaka tse itseng hōla ka lebelo ka potlako ho feta libakeng tse ling, eaba ba etsa le enclosing e hlokisa kapa moo ka ntho e etsisoang kenyelletsoa ha lintlha tsa kristale 'nile qhibiliha tsoa (kristale nyahamisang a atisa ho hlahella bobebe ho feta neng a amohetse moeti oa bona tlas'a darkfield khanya)

nyahamisang a kenyelletsoa ha lintlha

e kenyelletsoa ha lintlha tse fosahetseng sebaka e ka 'na khase kapa mokelikeli tlala kapa li na sebaka se senyenyane sa tiileng oa kenyelletsoa ha lintlha (sheba kristale boetse bo sa khothatseng)

nyahamisang a ho bala

haeba lejoe tlas'a teko ya refractometer e-na le ho R.1 ka holimo ho lethathama la seletsa, ha ho moriti o bohale tla bonoa (ntle le ea ikopanye mokelikeli)

Non-bonaletsang

liminerale le lintho tse ling re ke bao e seng bonaletsang kapa amorphous (ho toba, ntle le foromo) ha ba Jack e hlophisehileng internai kaheho le e geometrically oa kamehla ka ntle ponahalo (mohlala, diminerale dintho, Opal le likhalase, hammoho le thepa ea manyolo)

Non-o mosoeu leseli

leseli non-o mosoeu (khr, 'mala oa) o hlalosoa ka ho ya ka' mala o eona (khr, 'mala oa wavelength ea oona ea pele ho tse hlaheletseng), ho tlala (botebo kapa matla a' mala o muso o hlaheletseng) le ho etsa modumo (moriting-leseling ho lefifing leo)

Normal

a optics saleh dikhutlo ke tekanyo e sa tlwaelehang, e moleng oa inahanelang huleloa nakong dikhutlo nepahetseng (90 fihle moo ea ray, ea hlaselang holim 'eseng ho tloha holim' boeona

Optic kgosomanyomela

e tataiso ea refraction se nang balekane ka hare ho e kristale ho seng joalo doubly refractive o tsejoa e le boleng bo kgosomanyomela optic

sebapali Optic

sheba lintho tsa tlhaho optic

Optic mokhabo chitja

khalase chitja loketseng ho molamu khutsoanyane tseo e leng bohato e le condensing lense ho thusa boikemisetsong sa kena-kenane dipaterone bone hammoho e kgosomanyomela optic a hlophisa boitsebiso ba anisotropic

Optic lintho tsa tlhaho

optic mofuta diminerale e: liminerale tse arotsoe ka uniaxial, biaxial le isotropic (optic sebapali). Uniaxial le biaxial liminerale tse ling tse ka hlahang subdivided ho kena bao e leng optically khothatsang le bao e leng optically nyahamisang a (optic pontso)

Optic pontso

sheba lintho tsa tlhaho optic

Optical segokanyipalo

segokanyipalo Optical ke thepa e rarahaneng e leng demonstates boeona a sa re khoehlise la leseli. (Sheba boetse refraction)

dihlahiswa tsa Organic

dihlahiswa tsa manyolo ke thepa ea bao hlahisoang ke mosebetsi oa lintho tse phelang

Bochabela (ha perela)

ea iridescent bokaholimo Sheen ea batlang liperela lehakoe le 'mè oa-oa-perela. E bakiloeng ke sa kena-kenane la leseli nakong lifilimi tšesaane (lipoleiti tšesaane tsa lera nacreous) le ke diffraction tswa ho metshetshe o motle oa lipoleiti tse

liperela Oriental

tshebediso ya mefuta lentsoe lena e felle feela e hlalosang liperela tsa tlhaho fumanoa mefuta itseng ea likhofu sait metsi a Persia Gulf. Leha ho le joalo, ho 'nile la khoebo eketsehileng kakaretso moetlo oa hore tlelaseng saleh saltwater liperela tsa tlhaho joaloka linaheng tsa bochabela

arohana

arohana ke taboha seo se etsahala hammoho sefofane se motho oa fokola, ho e-na le lifofane tsa hammoho tšoanang ho lifahlehong kristale, kapa ho ka khonehang

kristale tobane, joalokaha e etsahala bokaholimo ba matsoele (e tsejoang hape e le bokaholimo ba matsoele bohata)

Pearl lijo-thollo

perela ea lijo-thollo ke maemo a yuniti bakeng perela bekha 1 lijo-thollo = 0.25 carat (1 CT = 4grains)

liperela

liperela tse formations tsa tlhaho secreted phoso 'me ntle ho thuso ea mokhatlo o fanang ka leha e le efe ea motho, a hare-hare ho mefuta itseng ea likhofu. Ba entsoe ka e mokelikeli manyolo (a scleroprotein bitsoang conchiolin) le la khalsiamo carbonate (eo hangata e leng ka mokgwa wa aragonite) lokisetsa a le dikarolo concentric, ea outermost ea tse boholo ba nacreous

Pearly

sheba benya

Pegmatites

igneous lefika la leruo la mahoashe hangata e nang le matsoai etsahala seoelo, ho akarelletsa le kristale e kholo ea mahakoe (mohlala, Beryl, chrysoberyl, feldspar, quartz, spessartite Garnet)

Phosphorescence

phosphorescence ke ha e le hantle lieha khanyang (khr, ke afterglow). E ile ea tsoela pele e ntshiwa ba leseli bopaki bo bonahalang ka mor'a mohloli oa mahlaseli a energizing e felile

Photoluminescence

photoluminescence ke lentsoe kopanetsweng bakeng khanyang le phosphorescence. Ke phello bontšitse ke thepa ea mekhoa e itseng ea ho hlahisa leseli bopaki bo bonahalang holim hore le pepesoe ho wavelength mahlaseli a khutsoanyane (mohlala, radiations motlakase a e bonahalang (bolou), mahlaseli 'me x-ray, karolo ea manyenyane ea)

bo supang

likaroloana tse nyenyane feela tse fumanoang joalokaha inclusions. Ha tsena li le teng ka bongata ba ka 'na ba joaloka leru hlalosoa le ho sebeletsa pepeneneng ea lejoe ka litsebeng

lutseng mobung Placer

placer lutseng mobung bopilwe concentrations holim 'a liminerale tsa bohlokoa tsa ea phahameng khoheli tse tobileng tseo (le tšoarella) oo entseng ke weathering oa lefika motsoali,' me maemong a mangata, o ile nile isoa ke molatsoana kapa leqhubu le nke khato e molemo

Sefofane se ea setshwani

e mong oa metsoako ea setshwani; sefofane se ea setshwani ke sefofane se inahanelang e leng arola mele likarolo tse peli e le hore e mong le e karolong e sa hlahellang (seiponeng) setšoantšo sa karolo e meng (khr, karolo ka 'ngoe e e tobileng e bapileng mphato oa meng)

dipolasetiki

lebitso le akaretsang bakeng sa 'maloa a manyolo dintho entsoeng ke motho (hangata lehoakhoa thehiloeng polymer) e ka extruded kapa bōptjoa ke futhumatsa ntlo le / kapa ho hatelloa ke batho

Play mebala

poleloana e reng bapala mebala e hlalosa letoto la lihlooho tse mebala bone ha leseli e bonahatsoa tsoang lifilimi tšesaane kapa ho tswa ho bonngoeng manifold-joaloka sebopeho sa Opal bohlokoa. E hlahisoang ke diffraction (pshatloa ka leseli o mosoeu ho kena mebala e ea eona ea motsoako joalokaha leseli le fetisa ka ho lesoba nyenyane) e karolong e khethehileng foromo ya tshitiso ya leseli

Pleochroism

pleochroism (ho toba, ba bangata 'mala o) ke lentsoe le akaretsang sebelisoa ho hlalosa mebala e fapaneng directional e ka bonoa e itseng ea majoe' mala o arola hore leseli (khr, ba doubly refracting) ka lebaka la ho sebopeho sa ba bona ba ka hare kristale. Ho akarelletsa ho dichroism (tse peli mebala) le trichroism (mararo mebala)

Polariscope

ea polariscope ke kofuto e entsoeng ka diyuniti tse pedi tse bakeng sa tlhahiso ya sefofane se polarized leseli lokisetsa nang le sethala rotating pakeng tsa bona. Ho tobana le liteko sesebediswa feela hore na kapa ha boitsebiso bo bongata e singly kapa doubly refractive

itšoare ka Polariscope

singly refractive-disebediswa tsa ntse lefifing leo ho pholletsa e 360 ° hlorisoe. Haeba boitsebiso bo tlas'a khatello internai ho ka 'na a bontša anomalous (bohata) imene habeli refraction (ADR), eo ka tloaelo a mokgwa wa lihlopha wavy kapa likoatipa tsoeng. Double refractive-majoe khaola ho tloha kristale le e 'ngoe ho ba le maemo a' nè tsa leseli le maemo a tse 'ne tsa lefifi. Bonaletsang aggregates kapa ikatetse akarelletsa DR disebediswa tsa ka bonahala saleh leseli ho pholletsa e 360 ° hlorisoe. Tshitsiso mokhabo-tabeng ea DR tse bonahalang, haeba maemo a nepile 'me e sa kena-kenane mokhabo o ile a hlokomela, ho ke ke hape ho ka etsahala ho bona hore na lejoe ke uniaxial kapa biaxial. (Optic matsoho o kile a eka fumana tshitsiso mokhabo, ho ke ke ho ka khonehang kateng ka nako eo ho bona hore na lejoe ke ntle le tse mpe ka thuso ea

lipoleiti kathoko fuoa ho khethehileng bakeng sa morero oo)

Polycrystalline

liminerale tse aggregates ea kristale se senyenyane ba bitsoa polycrystalline. kristale ana a manyenyane a ka lemoha sebelisa magnification, 'me ka linako tse ling ke leihlo la le mong (mohlala, hoo e ka bang saleh jadeite a jade)

mafahla Polysynthetic

sheba mafahla lammelar

Potch (tloaelehileng le sebelisoang malapeng Opal)

Milky disebediswa tsa haelloa ke bapala ya mmala, entsoe ka Makala silica ya boholo le ho se lekane ka tsela eo etsa hore leseli ba hasane ho e-na diffracted

inclusions Protogenetic

pele ho ea bileng teng inclusions:. bao e leng ne ba le teng pel'a phofu ea kristale qala ya ho theha le ba ne ba ikakhela ka setotsoana 'loketse mosebetsi entsoeng' ho kena karolong e qetellang (mohlala, likaroloana tse tiileng le kristale se senyenyane Ba atisa ho irregularly strewn ho pholletsa le ba ka seoelo a amanang le phofu ea kristale oa sebopeho sa

Pseudomorph

e pseudomorph (foromo bohata) ke diminerale e e leng nka foromo (ho sebopeho se tshwanang) oa diminerale e 'ngoe (kapa boleng ba manyolo) ka lebaka la ho futhumatsa ntlo le ho / kapa ho hatelloa ke batho kapa tsa lik'hemik'hale ho tlhotloa mohlala, leihlo la nkoe ha (quartz Phetolo ya crocidolite, diminerale e asbestos); patsi agate (a quartz Phetolo ya lehong)

ponahatso

ponahatso ke khutlele ke bokaholimo e (ebang internai kapa hlahang kantle) oa ketso e itseng ea leseli e leng oela holim'a metsi eo. Bona le Melao Snell oa

Refraction

refraction ke ho fetoha ha a tla re tataisa e leng leseli tsamaea ha o feta ho tloha mecha ea phatlalatso ea e 'ngoe e fapaneng ea segokanyipalo Optical (ntle le ha a otla karolong e ka holimo le tloaelehileng la mecha ea litaba tse peli ka 90 °). Joalokaha leseli le fetisa le tsoang bukeng e fumanehe ka seoelo joaloka ho e denser seaplane (mohlala, ho tloha tlala moeeng ho kena lejoe a) ho ke ke sothoe ho isa leanong la ho tloaelehile, Ka lehlakoreng le joalokaha ho fetisa tswa ho mosebeletsi wa denser ho buisanang le fumanehe ka seoelo joaloka e ikemiselitse hōle le ntho e tloaelehileng. Optical segokanyipalo ke thepa e rarahaneng e leng bontša ka boeona a sa re khoehlise la leseli. Bona le Melao Snell oa

Refractive index ea (RI)

ea RI ke karo-karolelano bonolo hakana bapisa lebelo la khanya e tlala moeeng ho ka lebelo la khanya ka seaplane filoeng. The maemo a sebediswa bakeng sa ho lekanya refractive index ea e tlala moeeng (tieo e lephaka); kahoo RI moea e nkoa e le 1.00

metamorphic Regional

ea recrystallization ya diteng tsa diminerale ea mafika pele ho ea bileng teng nakong thempereichara e eketsehileng (700 ° -2000 ° C) le tlas'a khatello e fokotseha

lekanyelitsoeng segokanyipalo

Sheba khoheli tse tobileng tseo (SG)

wavelengths barrel

wavelengths barrel ba elang wavelengths sa ananelang lintho tse bonahalang tse e leng kopana ho re fa perc-eived mala oa ntho e itseng

boroku

Sheba benya

Rock

lefika na le likaroloana diminerale e leng feletsoe kapa ba tiisa hammoho ka dithulaganyo tsa lik'hemik'hale kapa nile bonded hammoho ka tlas'a mocheso kapa khatello

ho tlala

e bua ka boleng kapa ho tiisetso ya mmala bonoa brilliancy mahlaseli a majoe sebeletsang pepeneneng faceted

Schiller

Sheba Sheen

Scintillation

phophoma; ho behella ka tima ea e khutšoanyane, mahlaseli khanya

Sectile

sectile bua ka thepa ea bokgoni ba ho peeled ke thipa le e sehiloeng e boreleli haholo

mafika Sedimentary

bao ha thehoa ke hahe tse bonahalang (sediments) oo simolohile tsoang 'meleng le k'hemik'hale thipitlo ya ba pre-teng ka majoe holim'a lefatše

liperela peo

liperela nyenyane haholo (ka tlase v. lijo-thollo / approx. 2mm) tse ka tlhaho ho thehiloe sa dinama tse nyenyane tse bonojoana tsa mollusk ka lebaka la tlhaselo ena ea lehlabathe, mahe mahala phaphametseng, likokoana-hloko kapa tse ling tse tsoang linaheng tse ling 'mele. liperela peo Hangata tsoeng 'me bo batalle, empa ha batho ba ka seoelo ho pota li fumanoa, li arohane ka ntle bakeng sa ho sebelisoa ho roala mabenyane a. Bona le Keshi liperela

hloaee absorption

hloaee absorption ea leseli ke tse hatelloang kapa absorption ea wavelengths tse itseng ho tloha ho fetiseng khanya a sebelisa ntho e itseng kapa a bontša tima bokaholimo ba eona. 'Mala oa litholoana disebediswa tsa ho tswa ho setseng wavelengths (barrel) hore finyella leihlo

Sheen (kapa Schiller)

Sheen ke shimmering kapa diffuse (hasana) ponahatso le phello bakoang ke leseli ntseng a bonahatsa tsoang inclusions kapa ditshebetso tse mehaho ka hare ho lejoe. Poleloana e reng akarelletsa chatoyancy, asterism, adularescence, aventurescence, opalescence, iridescence (labrodrescence le ho bapala mebala a Opal)

Silk (kenyelletsoa ha lintlha)

letoto la linale motle bapileng (khafetsa rutile)

Single refractive

e boetse e bitsoa isotropic. liminerale tseo e leng bontša e tsoanang thepa ea Optical a directions saleh (mohlala, majoe a tsamaisong dikubita le disebediswa tsa ho amorphous)

Melao Snell ea refraction

ha karoloana e ray, leseli le fetisa tsoang seaplane e 'ngoe o mong ho na le karo-karolelano e tobileng pakeng tsa linaha sine ea angle incidence le sine ea angle refraction. Ketsahalo ena ray,, ea ray, refracted le lintho tse tloaelehileng (a le makhatheng a incidence) Ke saleh a sefofane tšoanang. The karo-karolelano ea kamehla e kholo pakeng tsa angle incidence le refraction mecha ea phatlalatso leha e le efe e 'meli a ikopanye Optical e ne e bitsoa ka Snell ea refractive index ea (RI)

South Sea liperela

seqhenqha rutehileng liperela rutehileng a oyster silevera-lipped perela e nang le bophara ea 12 kapa esita 16mm. Tsena tse kholo liperela tse tsoeu e sebelelitseng lebitso South Sea hobane ba ne ba eo qalong e hlahisoang ke Japanese a Microne-Sia le Indonesia. Today liperela tsena hangata haholoanyane hlahisoang Australia le Burma, ba nang le Indonesia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea 'me Thailand joalokaha mehloling hase habohlokoa hakaalo. Ho intsa, ha ho bile le atlehileng maiketsetso tshwela mare pokello ea oyster silevera-lipped perela, e bolelang hore phepelo ea oyster 'me ke lekanyelitsoeng le ditheko bo loketseng phahameng

Tse tobileng tseo khoheli (SG)

ea SG kapa mong segokanyipalo tse bonahalang ke karo-karolelano pakeng tsa boima ba boleng ba le boima ba e bophahamo ba modumo metsi a hloekileng e lekanang ea nakong 4 ° C (metsi palo e kahodimodimo segokanyipalo) le nakong tsotellehe khatello maemo a sepakapaka. SG e amanang le ho lik'hemik'hale tsa lintho tse bonahalang tse hammoho le oxyphobe dikgaisano tsa athomo (ha e le hantle, ho e susumetsoa feela ke ho lekanyelitsoe boima bo athomo tsa motheo tse fapa-fapaneng motsoako empa o boetse o mokhoa oo liathomo tse behoa 'moho)

Spectroscope

kofuto e leng a arola e lehlaseli la leseli wavelengths ea oona constituent kapa mebala e manyenyane ka ho ba le porisime kapa diffraction grating. The spectroscope lumella 'ngoe ho bona hore dikarolo tsa tse tobileng tseo (mela kapa lihlopha) kapa dibakeng (e pharaletse absorption) ya leseli o mosoeu ba ananelang lehakoe ka ho qhalakanya kapa jala ka ntle ka wavelengths barrel e leng ba' nile ba a tšoaetsanoang ka ho tswa kapa bonahatsa lejoe tlas'a teko (eseng ail majoe bontša manyenyane 'me hase saleh spectrums bone ke ea tlhahlobo ea bongaka empa absorption lihlopha' na a bontša ho se taka kapa moemeli boteng ba lirafshoa tse itseng)

Splintery

sheba fracture

setshwani

setshwani bua ka kamehla kapa ho leka-lekana ea sebopeho se tshwanang ea mahakoe ka boholo hammoho le boemong bo sefahleho-up le a profil

inclusions Syngenetic

inclusions phetseng mehleng entsoeng ka dintho tse neng li fanoa ka nako e tšoanang le phofu ea crystai (mohlala,-butle diminerale; sephalli a cavities le mapetsong folisa; zonal lihlopha; inclusions metsi;. bonoa moroeroe ya kgolo tse kang mmala bopa dikgaolo le sebopeho lefahla na khafetsa e o ile a laela intergrowth pakeng tsa linaha inclusions syngenetic le batsholabaeng kristale e le hore le ka beha tse pedi tsa le kamano e mehaho laoloa ke melao ea crystallographic

maiketsetso mahakoe

sehlahiswa maiketsetso o na le e tšoanang lik'hemik'hale, sebopeho sa athomo le thepa ea lintho tsa nama kapa joalokaha mphato ba bona ba tlhaho (mohlala, a maiketsetso a emeralde, a maiketsetso a corundum, joalo-joalo)

ho phehella ha

ho phehella ha kapa toughness ke ho itoanela oa lehakoe ho tlōla kapa fracturing. E amanang le ho bokhoni ba ho monya liminerale shocks ntle le qhala kaheho internai. Terms kopana le tabeng ena e kenyeletsa brittle, sectile, ruteha habonolo, 'tenyetseha' me rekere

lifilimi Thin

talingoa tlas'a bonahatsa leseli lifilimi tsena tšesaane na le ponahalo iridescent tloaelehileng mokato tšesaane tsa oli holim'a metsi kapa ea mebala-bala holim 'a woman take bubble e sesepa

Three mohato kenyelletsoa ha lintlha

e mokelikeli-mokoti o tletseng metsi nang take bubble le e kristale

Tone

modumo o bua ka lightness lekanyelitsoeng kapa ho le lefifi lemohuoa (ebang ke oa 'mala o itseng kapa e tsoeu motso)

Total ponahatso hare

ya palo yohle ya ponahatso hare le hlaha hokae, e ray, ba khannang leseli le tsoang e denser ho buisanang le fumanehe ka seoelo joaloka nakong angle e moholo ho feta angle tse mahlonoko tseo e khutlela denser seaplane moo ho mamela melao ea ponahatso

Toughness

sheba phehella ha

likarolo Phetoho

bolela sebelisoa mekhoa e itseng likarolo metallic e leng ka lebaka la ho sebopeho sa ba bona ba athomo, phello ea absorption khetha khanya a majoe idiochromatic le allochromatic. Li google chrome, cobalt, koporo, vanadium, a mankanese, tšepe, nikele le thaethaniamo

fetisetsa

ho fetisa (mohlala, leseli) tsoang seaplane e 'ngoe; hore a romele (mohlala, pontšo) kapa u romele ho ea pele (e..g., ho tloha ho e 'ngoe motho a le mong)

ho sebeletsa pepeneneng

tokoloho e leng oona oo leseli e fetisitswe kapa fetisoa ka lejoe. The likhato tse fapaneng tsa ho sebeletsa pepeneneng ba fuoa joalokaha: sebeletsang pepeneneng (TP) -e leng be ntho e bonaletsang e bontša le monyang e nyenyane tsa leseli e leng oela, empa e dumella ho fetisisa ho feta. Ntho shejoa ka lejoe le hlaha e hlakileng le e ikhethang. Sub-sebeletsang pepeneneng (S-TP) -e leng bokaalo khōlō ea leseli e fetisoa ka lejoe, empa feela lintlha tsa bohlokoa tsa eona e be ntho ka lehlakoreng le leng a lejoe le ke keng la khetholloa. Sub-translucent (S-TL) -only e nyenyane haholo ea leseli e ka feta mahakoe a ho ea metshetshe le mosesaane. Opaque (0) -ail tsa leseli e leng oela holim'a ntho opaque e ebang bonahatsa kapa ananelang. Ho se na khanya feta lintho tse bonahalang tse, esita le nakong metshetshe le mosesaane.

Treacle kenyelletsoa ha lintlha

e mocheso tsokoang kapa roiled le phello-wisps le swirls mebala

Twin kristale

e kristale lefahla ke kristale e entsoe ka dihalofo tse pedi tsa ea kristale tšoanang kapa kristale tse peli kapa ho feta mefuta e mengata ea e tsoanang e leng ho ba le kamano e tobileng crystallographic mong ho e mong 'me ba hōlileng' moho ka tsela e ditshwani (sheba mafahla ikopanye le mafahla interpenetrant)

mohato tse peli kenyelletsoa ha lintlha

e mokelikeli-mokoti o tletseng metsi nang take bubble kapa e kristale

Mahlaseli (UV)

mahlaseli bolela ka nģ'ane ho bopherese. Ona oa lithaba tsa mahlaseli a kotsi ho qala ka wavelengths tse kgutsufala ho feta tse 400nm la leseli bopherese

majoe Uniaxial

a hexagonal eo, trigonal le tetragonal litsamaiso kristale ho na le ea optic kgosomanyomela (tataiso ea refraction ba masoha): liminerale tsa ditsamaiso tsa tsena li tsejoa e le uniaxial (a majoe uniaxial selekaneng optic ke bapile le ka sehloohong tsepameng 'e c' kgosomanyomela)

Unit seleng

yuniti seleng ea sebopeho sa kristale e leng karolo nyenyane ka ho fetisisa e kristale oona e sa ntseng a nang le tsona makgetha khethollang mokhatlo oa kristale e bitsoa yuniti seleng. Mokhoa oo lisele yuniti ba stacked ka tlhaho 'me ponahalo ea etsang qeto ea hlahang kantle kristale ea

lesira kenyelletsoa ha lintlha

sheba masiba kenyelletsoa ha lintlha

leseli bopaki bo bonahalang

a khanya ke mofuta o mong oa matla tlale thabo e fanang ka hlahisa polelo e tloaelehileng ea boikutlo oa pono. wavelength leha e le efe mahlaseli a motlakase e hoo e ka bang teng lipakeng tsa 400nm le 700nm ke iponahalitse ho leihlong la motho leseli joalokaha

Vitreous

sheba benya

Wavelength

wavelength o hlalosoa e le sebaka se pakeng tsa litlhōrō tse peli tse latellanang tsa tsokoang hore

Waxy

sheba benya

White leseli

leseli o mosoeu (tsoakiloeng leseli) e entsoe ka motsoako e batlang bo lekana le mebala tsohle kapa wavelengths tse etsang bopaki bo bonahalang manyenyane (kgubedu, o kang oa lamunu, o mosehla, o motala, o moputsoa le bopherese). 'Mala oa leseli fapana nang itšetlehileng wavelength eo. maqhubu a maholo Red na le wavelengths telele ka ho fetisisa (700 + NM) 'me sena se diminishes pholletsa manyenyane ho Violet wavelengths, tse nang e kgutshwane ka (400nm-hoo e ka bang 1 / 4 bolelele ba mahlaseli a khubelu)

fensetere

sebeletsang pepeneneng sebakeng sa tse tlaase mmala tiisetso bakoang ke ho dutla leseli e leng lumella ea semelo sa hlaha ka mor'a ka lejoe ho bonoa (bala-ho pholletsa le phello)

Zircon selika-likoe

sheba selika-likoe kenyelletsoa ha lintlha

Zonal striae

sheba mmala lihlopha

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